Who is where
This tutorial, unlike other tutorials which focus on specific vendors, is a multi-vendor comparison of regions.
- AWS regions
- Google Cloud Compute (TODO)
- Rackspace (TODO)
- Digital Ocean
- IBM (todo)
TODO: Provide an interactive comparison.
I want you to feel confident that you’ve mastered this skill. That’s why this takes a hands-on approach where you type in commands and we explain the responses and possible troubleshooting. This is a “deep dive” because all details are presented.
Like a good music DJ, I’ve carefully arranged the presentation of concepts into a sequence for easy learning, so you don’t have to spend as much time as me making sense of the flood of material around this subject.
Sentences that begin with PROTIP are a high point of this website to point out wisdom and advice from experience. NOTE point out observations that many miss. Search for them if you only want “TL;DR” (Too Long Didn’t Read) highlights.
Stuck? Contact me and I or one of my friends will help you.
Each region is a separate geographic area.
Open the Amazon EC2 console at
Sign-in if you haven’t done so.
Select your default region: from the navigation bar, view the options in the region selector.
Code Name us-east-1 US East (N. Virginia) us-west-1 US West (N. California) us-west-2 US West (Oregon) eu-west-1 EU (Ireland) eu-central-1 EU (Frankfurt) ap-northeast-1 Asia Pacific (Tokyo) ap-northeast-2 Asia Pacific (Seoul) ap-southeast-1 Asia Pacific (Singapore) ap-southeast-2 Asia Pacific (Sydney) sa-east-1 South America (São Paulo)
Names in parentheses is what is displayed at the upper-right on various AWS consoles.
NOTE: In addition to the above, Amazon’s has a AWS GovCloud (US) and China (Beijing) which cannot be specified this way.
Availability Zones under each region are listed on the Status by service under each continent at status.aws.amazon.com
Each region within Amazon contains multiple, isolated Availability Zones.
Additional end-point locations via AWS CloudFormation CDN service.
CAUTION: The number and mapping of Availability Zones per region may vary between AWS accounts.
NOTE: Amazon charges for network traffic between availability zones.
Set Default Region and URL for CLI
Open your MacOS profile using a text editor (substitute atom with subl, vim, etc.):
PROTIP: Set an environment variable to your default regional endpoint (for example, https://ec2.us-west-1.amazonaws.com):
Add to the bottom of the file based on your selection in the step above:
Notice the region is specified twice in EC2_URL.
WARNING: Do not include in EC2_URL the # and what follows, such as “#Instances:sort=instanceId”.
Save the file and run the file to load it into memory:
List regions using CLI
In a Terminal window, view the very latest list of AWS regions:
aws ec2 describe-regions aws ec2 describe-availability-zones --region us-west-2
For examples of AWS CLI commands such as the above, see:
Amazon’s User Guide on Regions and availability zones.
If you get an error message like this:
-bash: aws: command not found
If you get an error message such as this:
An error occurred (UnauthorizedOperation) when calling the DescribeRegions operation: You are not authorized to perform this operation.
then use the AWS configure command to obtain:
- AWS Access Key ID
- AWS Secret Access Key
- Default region name (such as “us-west-2”)
PROTIP: Create Named Profiles in file
~/.aws/config(containing region) because you will likely use multiple AWS accounts.
Then, go to IAM to define permissions for each user to access EC2.
Microsoft Azure cloud regions
Not all services are available in all regions.
Regions with locations, rearranged by continent:
|Canada East||Quebec City||-|
|East US 2||Virginia||Y|
|North Central US||Illinois||Y|
|South Central US||Texas||Y|
|Brazil South||Sao Paolo||Y|
|Japan East||Tokyo, Saitama||Y|
|East Asia||Hong Kong||Y|
|Australia East||New South Wales||-|
Two regions for the US Government are in Virginia. http://bit.ly/msgovt
Rackspace began operations soon after the announcement of AWS. The company provides value-added on AWS as well as on its own servers East of its Austin, Texas headquarters.
AppScale (@appscalecloud) gives you the freedom to run App Engine applications on any public, private, or hybrid cloud.
More on DevOps
This is one of a series on DevOps:
- ci-cd (Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery)
- User Stories for DevOps
- Git and GitHub vs File Archival
- Git Commands and Statuses
- Git Commit, Tag, Push
- Git Utilities
- Data Security GitHub
- GitHub API
- Choices for DevOps Technologies
- Pulumi Infrastructure as Code (IaC)
- Java DevOps Workflow
- AWS DevOps (CodeCommit, CodePipeline, CodeDeploy)
- AWS server deployment options
- Cloud services comparisons (across vendors)
- Cloud regions (across vendors)
- Azure Cloud Onramp (Subscriptions, Portal GUI, CLI)
- Azure Certifications
- Azure Cloud Powershell
- Bash Windows using Microsoft’s WSL (Windows Subsystem for Linux)
- Azure Networking
- Azure Storage
- Azure Compute
- Digital Ocean
- Packer automation to build Vagrant images
- Terraform multi-cloud provisioning automation
Hashicorp Vault and Consul to generate and hold secrets
- Powershell Ecosystem
- Powershell on MacOS
- Jenkins Server Setup
- Jenkins Plug-ins
- Jenkins Freestyle jobs
- Docker (Glossary, Ecosystem, Certification)
- Make Makefile for Docker
- Docker Setup and run Bash shell script
- Bash coding
- Docker Setup
- Dockerize apps
- Kubernetes Operators
- Threat Modeling
- API Management Microsoft
- Scenarios for load
- Chaos Engineering