Smart customization with no scripting. No cloud vendor lock-in. Full traceability
This article explains the quickest and least cost way to create servers for test or production use at enterprise scale.
Below is a summary of the funcamental strategies to achieve speed for less money. It’s not doing the same thing faster. It’s a new way of working that takes less time and less risk to achieve more.
The narrative to the diagram above is here:
Servers are built on-premises or on major cloud environment (Amazon, Microsoft, Google, etc.), whichever cloud at the lowest cost. Such arbitrage can save money.
In addition to application programming source, infrastructure configurations are stored within a distributed versioned source repository (GitHub, or Bitbucket in the cloud or GitLab on-premises)
Server configurations are defined using declarative statements that specify the end result rather than specific steps This means when a server configuration is run several times, it doesn’t create a mess (this is called “idempotent”)
A single server configuration can be applied to one of several operating systems by use of Docker containers instead of hypervisors which repeat OS kernels in memory
Proprietary Hypervisors: Microsoft Hyper-V, VMware vSphere/ESi, Oracle OVM (Oracle Virtual Machine), Huawei FusionSphere
Open Source Hypervisors: KVM, Cisco Xen, Red Hat, OpenVZ
Automation engines (such as Shippable) covers the entire pipeline so integration of Jenkins with 3rd-party tools doesn’t risk projects
Differences between servers in test, demo, prod, and other stages are handled automatically without requiring explicit manual scripting Thus, monitoring and various other utility software for diagnosis are automatically added to each type of server
Instances can be created quicker if build results can saved in a build repository (such as Artifactory) for reuse rather than building each instance from source code
Common to both are notifications sent via variety of channels (email, SMS text, IRC, Slack, Skype, etc.).
TODO: graphic table like https://www.wikiwand.com/en/Industry_4.0
Software for DevOps 2.0
Joe Bada’s list is way more comprehensive, which this post highlights.
“DevOps 2.0” is achieved by tools from several developer groups.
- GitHub / Bitbucket / GitLab
- Artifactory server image repository
- container registry services in cloud environments
- Shippable Lighthouse service watches and sends notifications to Slack, IRC, etc.
- Amazon’s EC2 Container Service (ECS)
- Google Container Engine (GKE)
- Microsoft Azure Container Service
- Docker Cloud
- Docker Datacenter
- Red Hat Openshift 3
Why Upgrade from DevOps 1.0
How long does it take to make a small change … and get it to the end customer? … through tests in various environments which gets more complex as more developers and components are added over time?
“DevOps 2.0” improves on where the “12 Factor App” promise of DevOps faces limits:
- software too complex to learn
- software too difficult to test in production
- software too brittle
- software operates only within a single vendor’s environment
- inconsistencies of servers in different stages and environments
“Staging Servers Must Die” by Edith Harbaugh 2016 advocates for feature toggles – bits of code written into your application that let you turn features on or off at a moment’s notice for specific segments of your user base. It’s used by Facebook, Amazon. See Etsy’s Feature API on GitHub
There are also integration offerings such as Zapier, Microsoft Flow, etc.
“12 Factor App” is defined in 12factor.net and explained at:
- In plain English
- Building Microservices with the 12 Factor App Pattern on AWS slidedeck by Chris Hein
- Applying the Twelve-Factor App Methodology to Serverless Applications, 12 FEB 2018 by Chris Munns
- 5 Years of 12 Factor Apps by Joe Kutner May 17, 2017 video explains it’s still as relevant as ever.
The Twelve-Factor App: What It Is and How to Monitor It Apr. 10th, 2018
by Adilson Somensari explains how New Relic helps with each factor.
ARA / ARO Vendors
Gartner predicts that “By 2023, 75% of global enterprises will have implemented at least one application release orchestration (ARO) solution, which is an increase from fewer than 20% today” in 2018.
ARA vendors are listed alphabetically below, along with Glassdoor.com reporting from employees who recommend the employer:
|*||BMC Software||68%||Release Lifecycle Management||*|
|*||CA Technologies||58%||CA Release Automation and Automic||-|
|*||Electric Cloud||58%||ElectricFlow Adaptive Release Orchestration||*|
|*||IBM||67%||IBM UrbanCode Deploy||-|
|*||Micro Focus||44%||Deployment Automation (formerly Serena)||-|
|Hybrid Cloud Management (Ultimate Edition)||-|
|*||Microsoft||81%||Azure Pipelines (Visual Studio Release Management)||*|
|*||OpenMake Software||-||DeployHub Pro||-|
|*||Red Hat Open Shift||75%||OpenShift Container Platform and Ansible Tower||-|
|*||VMware||85%||vRealize Code Stream||-|
ARA goes beyond just Jenkins, Ansible, and Continuous Integration.
ARA combines capabilities in automation, environment modeling, and release coordination for increased visibility for the whole team.
Docker containerized environments use Kubernetes or Docker Swarm and Compose.
Kubernetes software watches and adjusts the number of servers as appropriate.
Formation like shipping lanes for applications pipelines
individual deployment units are called Cells.
Mesos-based DC/OS (Data Center Operting System)
The main difference is that developers don’t need to learn Jenkins and Chef.
More on DevOps
This is one of a series on DevOps:
- ci-cd (Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery)
- User Stories for DevOps
- Git and GitHub vs File Archival
- Git Commands and Statuses
- Git Commit, Tag, Push
- Git Utilities
- Data Security GitHub
- GitHub API
- Choices for DevOps Technologies
- Pulumi Infrastructure as Code (IaC)
- Java DevOps Workflow
- AWS DevOps (CodeCommit, CodePipeline, CodeDeploy)
- AWS server deployment options
- Cloud services comparisons (across vendors)
- Cloud regions (across vendors)
- Azure Cloud Onramp (Subscriptions, Portal GUI, CLI)
- Azure Certifications
- Azure Cloud Powershell
- Bash Windows using Microsoft’s WSL (Windows Subsystem for Linux)
- Azure Networking
- Azure Storage
- Azure Compute
- Digital Ocean
- Packer automation to build Vagrant images
- Terraform multi-cloud provisioning automation
Hashicorp Vault and Consul to generate and hold secrets
- Powershell Ecosystem
- Powershell on MacOS
- Jenkins Server Setup
- Jenkins Plug-ins
- Jenkins Freestyle jobs
- Docker (Glossary, Ecosystem, Certification)
- Make Makefile for Docker
- Docker Setup and run Bash shell script
- Bash coding
- Docker Setup
- Dockerize apps
- Kubernetes Operators
- Threat Modeling
- API Management Microsoft
- Scenarios for load
- Chaos Engineering