Adds filters missing in GraphQL. Adds graphs missings in SQL. The one language to rule them all.
Kusto is named after pioneering Oceanographer Jacque Custou (pronounced “Kusto”). Like the language, he dove deep into a vast ocean for new insights.
NOTE: Content here are my personal opinions, and not intended to represent any employer (past or present). “PROTIP:” here highlight information I haven’t seen elsewhere on the internet because it is hard-won, little-know but significant facts based on my personal research and experience.
Compared to SQL, KQL is less verbose but is proprietary to Microsoft.
The language is read-only, of up to 5 GB.
KQL is used in several Azure products, include the ADX managed SaaS service (GA 2019) for big data exploration in NRT (Near Real Time):
2.45 hr VIDEO COURSE: Exploring Data in Microsoft Azure Using Kusto Query Language and Azure Data Explorer by Neeraj Kumar (@mstechtrainings) makes use of NOAA’s Storm Events Database.
- 4h VIDEO COURSE: How to Start with Microsoft Azure Data Explorer (ADX) 29 Jun 2020 by Xavier Morera
This example of a KQL query draws data from the Heartbeat dataset. rendered as a timechart:
Open demo data from Microsoft:
Click the book icon at the right and select “Online course” for:
Click the book icon at the right and select “Language Reference” for:
Observe that KQL is part of Azure Data Explorer.
- Click “Query explorer” tab at the right.
- Expand “Saved Queries”
- Double-click on “Pluralsight” to expand the category.
Click to open “m2-table-80-percent”.
OBSERVE: Clicking completely replaces the existing KQL entry, without needing to clear it first.
// precede all comments in code.
Highlight a query, click blue “Run” or hold down Shift and press Enter.
CAUTION: “No result” will be returned if there is no data.
“Perf” is the table name to search in. This table has these fields visible:
TenantId Computer ObjectName ObjectName CounterName InstanceName
To see more columns, drag the horizonal bar or on the Touchpad move two fingers to the left:
CounterValue CounterPath StandardDeviation Type _ResourceID TenantID SourceSystem MG
PROTIP: The full list of columns for this and all other tables is:
Set the Time Frame or set in the script text:
| where TimeGenerated >= ago(1h)
PROTIP: Several where statements can be stacked.
For operators, click on the KQL query text area and press command+Enter:
- where - filter
- extend - creates a calculated column in the result set (before project)
- project - select a subset of columns (instead of all columns from table)
- project-away - remove column
To scroll for more, mouse over the list and slide two-fingers on the Mac Touchpad:
- distinct - to not repeat values shown
- take 5 // return 5 records
- top 20 // rows
The Pluralsight video covers search, where, take, count, summarize, extend, project, distinct.
Examples to limit too much being returned (and wasting time):
| search kind=case_sensitive "memory"
| search in (Perf, Event, Alert) "Contoso"
Use colon to search text wildcard:
| search CounterName:"MBytes"
| search * starswith "Bytes"
| search * endswith "Bytes"
| search "Free*Bytes" // Any that Begins with free or ends with bytes
| search InstanceName matches regex "[A-Z]:*"
Click “m3-demo-scalar” explained by this VIDEO covering Scalar Operators:
print, now() UTC, ago(-7d), sort by asc, extract, parse, datetime, Timespan Artithmetic, startof…, endof…, between, todynamic, format_datetime, format_timespan, datetime_aart, case, iif, isempty/isnull, split, String Operators, strcat
Click “m4-demo-advanced-aggregations” explained by this VIDEO
- summarize arg_max/arg_min( column ),
- makelist - flaten a hierarchy to a JSON array, allowing dup. values
- makeset - flaten a hierarchy to a JSON array, removing dup. values
For a list of PCs with low disk space:
Perf | where CounterName == "% Free Space" | and CounterValue <= 30 | summarize Computers = makeset(Computer)
- mvexpand, percentiles, dcount (distinct count, accuracy), dcountif, countif, pivot, top-nested, max/min, sum/sumif, any
Click “m5-demo-working-with-datasets” explained by this VIDEO
- let, join (tables), union (combine) with source, kind=outer
- datatable, prev/next, toscalar, row_cumsum, materialize
Click “m6-demo-time-series” explained by this VIDEO
Click “m7-data-machine-learning” explained by this VIDEO Machine Learning
- evaulate basket(threshold) - for the most frequently appearing combination of attributes, given the threshold for minimum frequency (default 0.05 or 5%)
- evaulate diffpatterns(EventLevelName, ‘Error’, ‘Warning’) // splits dataset to identify differences as “Error” or “Warning”. Use iif to flag metrics before and after the incident.
- reduce by Computer with threshold = 0.6 // to determine pattern, with default threshold of 0.1.
Exporting data to CSV
Click “m8-exporting-data” explained by this VIDEO
- To export to CSV file, run query and click the export icon.
- Select Export to CSV - all columns or display columns.
- In the pop-up at the bottom, click Save As.
Specify the folder and file name.
Run KSL in PowerBI Desktop
- Copy the Query to your Clipboard.
- Download and install PowerBI Desktop from https://powerbi.microsoft.com/desktop
- Open PowerBI
- In Home group, Get Data - Blank Query
- Advanced Editor
- Paste the query (command+V). Done runs the query.
- Close and apply changes.
- Create visualizations, etc.
Events | where StartTime >= datetime(2018-11-01) and StartTime < datetime(2018-12-01) | where State == "FLORIDA" | count
### KQL in Data Explorer
VIDEO course Microsoft Azure Data Explorer - Advanced KQL by Robert Cain.
Download and expand microsoft-azure-data-explorer-advanced-query-capabilities.zip to view folder module-05-performing-diagnostic-and-root-cause-analysis.
??? Load into Azure
inline Python & R code (converted to KQL string by highlighting then Ctrl+K & Ctrl+S).
Analyze data using geospatial analysis,
clustering algorithms, time series analysis.
Exploring data using Kusto
Exploring Data in Microsoft Azure Using Kusto Query Language and Azure Data Explorer, download exercise file microsoft-azure-data-exploring.zip (to your Downloads folder) and unzip. In folder coursfiles, ??
The https://github.com/jmespath/jmespath.terminal Python package offers an interactive environment to work with queries. Data is piped as input, and then queries are written and run in the editor:
pip install jmespath-terminal az vm list --output json | jpterm
CxE KQL hands-on lab exercises videos:
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